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Open Educational Resources (OER)

Welcome to the Open Educational Resources Website at Avila University


This website was developed to introduce Open Educational Resources (OER) ideas and concepts to the Avila University community. In addition, this OER website intends to help the Avila community effectively and efficiently locate open educational resources that will aid teaching and learning.

Introduction

What are Open Educational Resources?

What are Open Educational Resources (OER)?

Open Educational Resources (OERs) are any type of educational materials that are in the public domain or introduced with an open license. The nature of these open materials means that anyone can legally and freely copy, use, adapt and re-share them.

"OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge." [Casserly, Cathy, and Education. “Open Educational Resources.” Hewlett Foundation, 3 Aug. 2016, hewlett.org/strategy/open-educational-resources/]

OER are typically created using the same tools as anything else – word processors, graphic editor programs, etc. No special new skills or tools are necessarily to create OER beyond what you already have been using to create course content or activities. Anything that you create in a course could become an OER: text, articles, books, graphics, videos, activities, assignments, assessments, games, etc.

How to get started with OER at Avila University

The first step is finding OER, and that is what this guide is designed to do, so check out the three following OER sections:

  • The Open Educational Resources Introduction section... explains the "who, what, when, where, why, and how" of OER so you can better understand and customize OER for your courses.

  • The Discipline Specific OER section...will help you find content specific to a discipline of study.

  • The Open Textbook Network section... will link you to collections of open and free textbooks that can be customized for your courses.

  • The EBooks section...will link you to eBook resources that provide OER and Avila ebook content, and also offer tips for finding, displaying, and using eBooks.

SPECIAL NOTE:  This OER website is specifically designed to introduce OER to the Avila University community, but don't forget about the online/electronic resources available to you through Avila’s Hooley-Bundschu Learning Commons.  The Learning Commons holds licensed journals, databases, and an increasing number of eBooks (over 500,000). These resources may be accessed through the Learning Commons website by Avila University students, faculty, and staff with a valid Avila username and password). These resources cannot be customized or re-used in the same way as OER because of copyright restrictions; these eResources are not "open", but are ready and freely available for Avila students, faculty, and staff.

Updates and Content Submission

This OER website is continuously being updated.  The quality of resources collected here will be a function of feedback submitted by students and faculty.  Found an OER that is not listed in these pages? We would love to hear about it. Send the link / comments to Larry.kramer@avila.edu.

License

All original content on this page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. It is not necessary to seek permission to reuse the content, although – per the terms of the license – attribution is required.

Attributions

This guide contains materials derived from multiple works: "Faculty Guide to Open Educational Resources (OER)" by Highline College licensed under CC BY 4.0 ; "Austin Community College (ACC) Library Services Guide on Open Educational Resources" by Carrie Gits licensed under CC BY 4.0 ; and "OER - Open Educational Resources" by Portland Community College Library licensed under CC BY-NC 3.0.

Some content from University of Oklahoma Libraries.

All linked-to content adheres to its respective license.

 

Why use Open Educational Resources?

Why OER?

According to the Chronicle of Higher Education, 7 in 10 students will not purchase a textbook because it was too expensive; textbooks and learning materials cost students approximately $1,200 to $1500 per year [1].  Through Open Educational Resources (OER), the cost of student materials can be drastically reduced.  In addition, OER gives instructors the ability to customize textbook materials, thus creating the effective textbook.  OER also relieves instructors of being bound to traditional, expensive print resources. It is the ever increasing cost of textbooks and materials for students that is now pushing the OER movement forward.  

  • One in five college students has skipped or deferred a class due to the price of the required learning resources.

  • The cost of textbooks is rising at a rate of 4 times inflation

  • 60% of students have delayed purchasing textbooks until they’ve received their financial aid. 

Through OERs the cost of student materials can be drastically reduced

OERs give faculty the ability to customize course materials, creating the "perfect" course packet or textbook instead of being bound to a traditional one-size-fits-all model. Customization gives faculty control over the quality of their course materials as well as the type and timing of updates to textbooks and other resources. Customization also allows faculty to infuse course materials with pedagogy that reflects the  mission of "preparing leaders for the transformation of society". Some faculty also enjoy the opportunity to include upper-level students in the creation of course materials. OERs also allow required textbooks or materials to be available to all students from the very first day of class or beforehand.

This OER website is specifically designed to introduce Open Educational Resources to the Avila University community. The main emphasis in the OER initiative at Avila is to make learning content more cost-effective, discoverable, and accessible for students, faculty, and staff. The OER initiative at Avila looks to improve faculty teaching and student learning while building a learning environment unique to Avila.

1. Redden, Molly. “7 In 10 Students Have Skipped Buying a Textbook Because of Its Cost.” Chronicle.com, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 23 Aug. 2011, www.chronicle.com/article/7-in-10-Students-Have-Skipped/128785. 

License

All original content on this page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. It is not necessary to seek permission to reuse the content, although – per the terms of the license – attribution is required.

"Some Content from University of Oklahoma Libraries."

 All linked-to content adheres to its respective license.

The difference between Open Educational Resources and library resources that are licensed.

There is a Difference Between Open-Educational Resources and Library Resources

Beyond Open Educational Resources, there are library/licensed educational materials.  Faculty could consider filling in some of the instructional-resource gaps by using library resources, such as e-books and online database articles.

Licensed e-books, online magazines & journals, streaming media, and other online resources available through the Avila University Learning Commons subscriptions are not considered Open Educational Resources. 

These e-books and online database resources are restricted to Avila students, faculty and staff, and they are already-licensed materials that do not allow for customization and re-use or redistribution the same way as Open Educational Resources. Although library online resources are not "open", they are considered "alternative educational resources" (AER) that you can take advantage of and make available at no cost to your students. Library resources are also sometimes referred to as LER, which stands for licensed/library educational resources.

  • AER = alternative educational resources

  • LER = licensed/library educational resources

  • OER = open educational resources

Video: Library Resources as Course Materials  Results in Students Saving Money

License

All original content on this page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. It is not necessary to seek permission to reuse the content, although – per the terms of the license – attribution is required.

"Some Content from University of Oklahoma Libraries."

 All linked-to content adheres to its respective license.

Using Open Educational Resources in Canvas.

Using Open Educational Resources in Canvas

How to use the Open Attribution Builder tool in Canvas

On all the rich content boxes in our Canvas courses, we have access to an "Open Attribution Builder," located in the drop-down menu under the blue "V" icon along the content box editor. This makes it really easy to:

  1. Cite yourself by inserting a CC-license attribution for single pages or modules in Canvas

  2. Plus it's a way to easily cite content from others, like YouTube videos or CC-licensed images from Flickr or Pixabay, that you have integrated into your course.

Here's a 2-minute video with basic guidelines on how to use the "Open Attribution Builder" to license open materials you create or use in Canvas:

Video source: "Using the Open Attribution Builder to License Canvas Content" by Matthew Bloom, Standard YouTube license

Text source:  Adapted from "Sample CC license attribution statements to use on LS documents and course pages" by Jennifer Snoek-Brown, Tacoma Community College, licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

 

 


 

How to openly license your courses in Canvas

By default, the courses we create in Canvas retain traditional, private copyright. But you can change that default setting to make your courses in Canvas openly licensed. This way, you are also contributing your own OER!

Below are condensed instructions for how to set a Creative Commons license for your courses in Canvas. You can read more in this Canvas Guide about the types of available content licenses, and more instructions and screenshots about setting a CC license for a course in this Canvas Guide.

  1. Open up your course and go to Settings. The "Course Details" tab should be the default Settings page.

  2. Scroll down to the License drop-down menu and select a license option, as seen in the screenshot below:

  1. Be sure to click the "Update Course Details" button at the bottom of this page, or your changes won't save!

  2. Doublecheck your course's home page. Once you have updated your course details, go back to your course's home page. You should now see the relevant CC license statement automatically added to the bottom of the home page. Here's a sample below:

  3. Be sure to click the "Update Course Details" button at the bottom of this page, or your changes won't save!

  4. Doublecheck your course's home page. Once you have updated your course details, go back to your course's home page. You should now see the relevant CC license statement automatically added to the bottom of the home page.

Why Open Educational Resources are important in higher education.

Why are OER important? Cost Savings.

For students already struggling to afford rising tuition and housing costs, the additional expense of textbooks can be a hurdle to accessing higher education. In a study conducted by Florida Virtual Campus in 2012, 65% of respondents indicated that they did not purchase textbooks at one point in their schooling due to cost. The same survey also indicated that 35% of students reduced their semesterly course load due to textbook cost and that 23% of students regularly forego purchasing textbooks due to cost alone. According to a Consumer Study conducted by NBC in 2015, from January 1977 to June 2015 textbook prices within the United States have risen 1,041%; this amount has risen over three times the rate of U.S. inflation.

While there are many short-term measures that students can use to save money on textbooks, such as buying or borrowing used materials, rental programs, or using e-textbooks and library reserves, none of these options are as innovative as OER. Open educational resources, like open textbooks, can decrease the cost of education because they are either free or low cost. Lower costs will result in students being less dependent on student loans and may even result in higher program completion rates. Greater open textbook adoption will therefore result in a more affordable, more accessible post-secondary education.

Because their license allows OER to be retained and reused, OER can also be accessed repeatedly throughout one’s degree, unlike online textbooks (or e-books) and course materials that require expensive access codes that expire when a course is finished. OER can therefore be used to enhance future projects or assignments or serve as supplementary reading later in one’s degree or post-graduation, promoting low-cost, lifelong learning that is not confined to the span of a course.

 

OER cost savings in action:

 

Why are OER important? Pedagogical Benefits.

The many cost saving benefits of OER are matched by the equally important pedagogical benefits of open education.

One of the main teaching benefits is that, since open materials are fully revisable and remixable, they can be customized to fit the way an instructor wants to teach a course. When using static traditional resources that cannot be easily edited or combined due to copyright restrictions, instructors may be forced to teach their courses in a way that conforms to available resources, rather than teach the course in their ideal way. Using OER allows the freedom to revise material by removing irrelevant content or adding one’s own content, as well as the flexibility to combine parts of resources together, thereby ensuring materials are contextualized to a specific course.

Because anyone, including students, can be involved in the creation, revision, and distribution of OER, instructors can also use these resources to engage in “open pedagogy,” assignments that leverage OER to create more meaningful learning experiences. Traditionally, students work hard on assignments that will be handed in to their instructor, graded, and then never seen again. Instead, instructors might, for example, ask students to edit OER for redistribution, or have students openly license their own work for use by future students, thereby allowing their work to be shared with a more meaningful audience. This positions students as active participants in scholarly knowledge-sharing.

 

Open pedagogy in action:

 

Why are OER important? Knowledge Creation and Dissemination.

OER also provide benefits to members of communities beyond college and university campuses, allowing for knowledge creation and sharing outside the bounds of the traditional class and campus settings. It can be difficult for those outside of scholarly communities to access and participate in learning materials or research, and the creation of openly licensed research and teaching materials helps break down such barriers. This allows broader access to information and research, and broader participation in scholarship, helping universities to spread their core missions to society as a whole.

Open knowledge in action:

What are the Main Barriers to Adopting OER?

Research has shown there are many barriers to faculty and instructors adopting open educational resources. These include a mixture of true barriers and barriers caused by faculty perceptions of OER and open pedagogy. Students should keep the following list of barriers in mind when starting their own advocacy for OER; suggestions in Steps Two and Three of this toolkit attempt to address them.

  • Not available or difficult to find. Faculty who are new to OER perceive knowing where to find relevant course materials, as well as the time involved in finding them, as barriers to adoption. It is thus important that institutions provide staff and library support for the adoption process, as well as incentives for faculty to spend extra time adopting OER.

  • Perception of quality. Faculty are used to using traditionally published resources,

    and may be hesitant to adopt OER when they don’t know if they can trust their quality. However, those who have used OER often report their quality as equal to or better than traditional resources. The pedagogical benefits that come with the flexibility of OER should be emphasized in messaging to faculty, as these can contribute to improved perception.

  • Traditional textbook package. Traditional textbooks often come with not just a book, but also with ancillary resources like online homework platforms or banks of exam questions. Faculty will be more likely to adopt OER if, in doing so, they can adopt both a textbook and a package of related materials.

  • Institutional culture. Faculty may be reluctant to adopt OER if they perceive that they are alone in doing so, or that they are acting against the culture of their institution. Student advocacy should target not just faculty, but also university administrations who set strategic priorities and make decisions about what initiatives to fund. Showing broad support from the student body can also help to shift institutional culture.

  • Not an individual decision. Often, the choice of which textbook to use in large courses is made by departments, not individual faculty members. This makes it more difficult for faculty to choose to adopt OER, because of competing interests and values of instructors. Working with faculty champions to speak to those instructors who may be reluctant to adopt OER can be successful to ensure widespread support. This can be effective in leveraging the support of instructors who are willing to do the work behind adoption.

 

Updates and Content Submission

This OER website is continuously being updated. The quality of resources collected here is a function of feedback submitted by students and faculty.  Found an OER that is not listed in these pages? We would love to hear about it.  Link to it in a comment or send it to Larry.kramer@avila.edu.

 

License

Step One: What Are OER, Why Are They Important, and What are the Barriers to Adoption? by BCcampus is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Open Educational Resources, the Creative Commons, and Copyright.

The difference between OER and typical resources are the permissions that you assign to the works you create.

One popular way to look at these permissions is the 5R Open Course Design Framework by Lumen Learning:

  • Retain: Other people have permission to make, own, and control copies of your resource.

  • Reuse: Other people can use your resource in a wide range of ways (like in a class, a website, a video, etc.).

  • Revise: Other people can adapt, adjust, modify, or alter your resource itself (for example, translating it into another language).

  • Remix: Other people can combine your original or revised resource with other materials to create something new.

  • Redistribute: Other people can share copies of your original resources, their revisions, or their remixes with others.

Of course, many people can already do this with many resources online. The difference with OER is that you give permission to do these through a specific open license.

Open Licensing

Most people are familiar with copyright, although probably not the details of copyright law. The main point of copyright is to protect the usage and distribution of original works of authorship, usually in favor of the creator of the work. Anything under copyright is designated as “all rights reserved.”

On the other end of the spectrum is public domain, where either the owner has released all rights, or the rights have expired. This is typically referred to as “no rights reserved.” Different countries, and even different states within various countries, will have varying copyright laws that address rights and public domain.

Between these two options resides the bulk of open licensing that is often referred to as “some rights reserved.” One of the most popular ways to license these works is through a Creative Commons (CC) license. These are a set of licenses that designate how you would like your work to be attributed, shared, and used (or not used) for commercial purposes. CC licenses are open, free to use, and popular with millions around the world. Also, it is important to note that CC works in parallel with copyright – you can still retain copyright while using CC.

 

Utilizing a CC license can help get your work out to more people. A brief review of the different CC licenses:

  • Attribution (CC BY): Other people can distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work (commercially or non-commercially), as long as they give you credit for your original work.

  • Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY SA): Others people can remix, tweak, and build upon your work (commercially or non-commercially), as long as they give you credit and license their new work under the same terms.

  • Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY NC): Other people can remix, tweak, and build upon your work (non-commercially). Their new work must also credit you and be non-commercial, but they don’t have to license their derivative works the same way you did.

  • Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY NC SA): Other people can remix, tweak, and build upon your work (non-commercially) – as long as they give you credit and license their new work under the same terms.

  • Attribution-NoDerivatives (CC-BY ND): Others can share your work – commercially and non-commercially – as long as your work is credited to you and shared complete and unchanged.

  • Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY NC ND): Others can download your work and share with others as long as they give you credit, don’t change your work in any way, or use your work commercially.

What is the Creative Commons?

Keep in mind that licensing does not just apply to text content. Images, videos, animations, and other creative works can also be offered through an open license. With all forms of media – especially video content – just remember to keep track of everything you use when creating the media. Not everything you use may be free to include in an open license. For example, if you use a famous song for background music in your videos, you won’t be able to release those videos as OER. Keep this is mind with graphics, music, sound effects, and other parts you utilize when creating video or media. There are vast libraries of license-free media that you can use if needed – just search for the type of license-free media you need. You may have to look at multiple websites to find exactly what you are looking for.

License

All original content on this page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. It is not necessary to seek permission to reuse the content, although – per the terms of the license – attribution is required.

"Some Content from University of Oklahoma Libraries."

 All linked-to content adheres to its respective license.

Open Educational Resources and Open Pedagogy.

What is Open Pedagogy? 

Open pedagogy "rethink[s] the relationship between teachers, students, and knowledge where teachers and students become learners together, and “content” becomes a dynamic, always changing category with which we engage rather than a stable set of facts to be mastered." 


Ross, Heather M.  "April Open Perspective: What is Open Pedagogy?" 2017 Open Perspectives. Year of Open.  https://www.yearofopen.org/april-open-perspective-what-is-open-pedagogy/ 

 

Examples of open pedagogy

Examples of and issues about open pedagogy. From University of British Columbia

In-depth blog post by David Wiley that explores open pedagogy 

Christina Hendricks, University of British Columbia. Outlines different types of renewable assignments, as well as examples. 

 

Updates and Content Submission

This OER website is continuously being updated. The quality of resources collected here will be  a function of feedback submitted by students and faculty.  Found an OER that is not listed in these pages? We would love to hear about it.  Link to it in a comment or send it to Larry.kramer@avila.edu.

Open Educational Resources Video Links.

Open Educational Resource Videos & Films

This guide suggests resources or ways to find openly licensed or public domain resources for your teaching and learning.

Provides access to videos from expert speakers on a wide range of topics. TED talks are available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Non Derivative license. The TED-ED portion of TED aims at educators and students. Note that TED-ED videos on YouTube are available under YouTube policy. For more, refer to TED talk usage policy.

An online video community that allows users to discover, watch and share originally-created videos. YouTube allows users to mark their videos with a Creative Commons Attribution license. To find YouTube videos with such a license, after typing your search query in the search box, click the “Filters” drop-down menu and select “Creative Commons”.

 

 

A social platform for sharing videos. Vimeo permits upload of videos licensed with Creative Commons. To limit search results to only show items with Creative Commons licenses, on the main search results page, look for “+ more filters” on the left. Then under “License”, select “CC0” or other desired license.

Provides video lessons mostly in mathematics and science topics. Also offers lessons in the humanities and economics. Khan Academy videos are licensed under the MIT license: http://opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php. Most videos are under a Creative Commons Attribution license. Users need to set up a personal login and password.

A comprehensive source of Open Educational Resources for K-12 and college level programmes under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial license. Includes videos, lesson guides, sound files and online tutorials from around the world.

Contains various types of digital moving images, such as fiction and documentary films, advertisements, news footage, television programmes, etc. Select those with a Creative Commons license for reuse (Tips to search for different license types).

Contains feature films, shorts, silent films and trailers. Select those with a Creative Commons license for reuse (Tips to search for different license types).

Contains thousands of films from the Prelinger Archives! Prelinger Archives was founded in 1983 by Rick Prelinger in New York City. Select those with a Creative Commons license for reuse (Tips to search for different license types).

 

A repository of open access digitized videos for education and learning purpose

 

Download thousands of historic media files for your creative projects. Completely free & made available by Pond5

 

Updates and Content Submission

This OER website is continuously being updated.  The quality of resources collected here is a function of feedback submitted by students and faculty.  Found an OER that is not listed in these pages? We would love to hear about it.  Link to it in a comment or send it to Larry.kramer@avila.edu.

License

All original content on this page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. It is not necessary to seek permission to reuse the content, although – per the terms of the license – attribution is required.

"Content from University of Oklahoma Libraries."

 All linked-to content adheres to its respective license.

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